Nothing Good Happens After Midnight: The Relationship Between Circadian Disruption due to Insomnia and Lack of Sleep to Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases
AbstractApproximately 121.5 million individuals worldwide are diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases. Advancing age increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in both genders. Circadian rhythm is accountable for well-ordered roles of many different body functions. The peak level of specific hormones and functions follow the biological interpretations of circadian rhythm, whether daylight or night time. Sleep disorders, aside from shift work, like obstructive sleep apnea, can induce circadian disruption that influences complex immunological, metabolic, and cardiovascular functions, eventually raising cardiovascular diseases risk. Online databases were systematically examined to investigate studies on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the past five years, assessing the impact of varying sleep disorders and shift work in inducing circadian disruption and its impact on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. After administering multiple inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 studies were selected, but only eight documents were chosen to review after a comprehensive analysis of the studies. Each document was assessed for fitness of quality. Sleep-related disorders and shift work were discovered to induce circadian malfunction and disruption, and correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Approaches to control disorders of cause should be developed to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases.