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Cytometric analysis of T cell phenotype using cytokine profiling for improved manufacturing of an EBV-specific T cell therapy.
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  • Rachel Cooper,
  • Aleksandra Kowalczuk,
  • Gwen Wilkie,
  • Mark Vickers,
  • John Campbell,
  • Marc Turner,
  • Alasdair Fraser
Rachel Cooper
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service

Corresponding Author:rachel.cooper2@nhs.scot

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Aleksandra Kowalczuk
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service
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Gwen Wilkie
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service
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Mark Vickers
University of Aberdeen
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John Campbell
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service
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Marc Turner
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service
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Alasdair Fraser
Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service
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Adoptive immunotherapy using Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific T cells is a potentially curative treatment for patients with EBV-related malignancies where other clinical options have proved ineffective. We describe improved GMP-compliant culture and analysis processes for conventional lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL)-driven EBV-specific T cell manufacture, and describe an improved phenotyping approach for analyzing T cell products. We optimized the current LCL-mediated clinical manufacture of EBV-specific T cells to establish an improved process using xenoprotein-free GMP-compliant reagents throughout, and compared resulting products with our previous banked T cell clinical therapy. We assessed effects of changes to LCL: T cell ratio in T cell expansion, and developed a robust flow cytometric marker panel covering T cell memory, activation, differentiation and intracellular cytokine release to characterize T cells more effectively. These data were analyzed using t-Stochastic Neighbour Embedding (t-SNE) algorithm. The optimized GMP-compliant process resulted in reduced cell processing time and improved retention and expansion of central memory T cells. Multi-parameter flow cytometry determined the optimal protocol for LCL stimulation and expansion of T cells and demonstrated that cytokine profiling using IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ was able to determine the differentiation status of T cells throughout culture and in the final product. We show that fully GMP-compliant closed-process culture of LCL-mediated EBV-specific T cells is feasible and profiling of T cells through cytokine expression gives improved characterization of start material, in-process culture conditions and final product. Visualization of the complex multi-parameter flow cytometric data can be simplified using t-SNE analysis.
23 Dec 2020Submitted to Clinical & Experimental Immunology
04 Jan 2021Submission Checks Completed
04 Jan 2021Assigned to Editor
07 Jan 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
14 Feb 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
15 Feb 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
06 May 20211st Revision Received
07 May 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
26 May 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
28 May 2021Editorial Decision: Accept
Oct 2021Published in Clinical & Experimental Immunology volume 206 issue 1 on pages 68-81. 10.1111/cei.13640