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Brain/core Discordance due to Neuronal Activity Identified by Noninvasive Brain Temperature Measurement via Brain-eyelid Thermal Tunnels 
  • +6
  • M Marc Abreu,
  • Trevor M Banack,
  • Ala S Haddadin,
  • Tyler J Silverman,
  • Feng Dai,
  • John A Elefteriades,
  • Robert Ostroff,
  • Michael F Bergeron,
  • David G Silverman
M Marc Abreu
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine
Trevor M Banack
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine
Ala S Haddadin
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine
Tyler J Silverman
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine
Feng Dai
Yale Center for Analytical Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University
John A Elefteriades
Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine
Robert Ostroff
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine
Michael F Bergeron
Department of Physical Therapy, Augusta University Medical Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University
David G Silverman
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, Yale University

Abstract

We herein performed a series of brain/core temperature discordance studies in setting of brain excitation and depression to assess whether noninvasive temperature measurement at highly transmissive eyelid skin overlying newly discovered brain-eyelid thermal tunnel (BTT°) is specific for brain as opposed to core temperature (Core°). BTT°-Core° was determined during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), seizures induced during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), pharmacologic depression by sedation and anesthesia, sleep, stroke, brain trauma, and exercise in hot environmental chamber. During brain-core decoupling BTT° follows brain neuronal activity. BTT°-Core° varied dramatically due to extreme changes during CPB. During ECT, BTT° ipsilateral to induced seizure increased from 36.38±0.4°C pre-seizure to 36.69°±0.3°C at two minute post-seizure (p<0.001 by paired t-test); Core° remained within 0.01°C of baseline (p=0.2). These changes were accompanied by BTT°-Core° discordance ranging from-0.1°C pre-seizure to +0.31°C post-seizure. Alternatively, during brain neuronal depression, BTT° ipsilateral to evolving ischemic stroke and Core° were 35.37±0.2°C and 36.00±0.09°C, respectively, with p<0.0001 for BTT°-Core° of 0.63±0.13°C. These findings document specificity of BTT transmission for brain thermal energy and illustrate potential BTT° usefulness in myriad clinical and investigative settings.