Background: Renal complications following cardiac surgery are fairly
common and may require renal replacement therapy. Most of such cases
recover with either conservative management or temporary, short period
requirements for renal replacement therapy. Several studies highlight
compelling evidence for such complications to be recognised and managed
promptly. Aim: In this review, we aim to address the identified risk
factors and pathophysiology of cardiac surgery associated renal injury.
Furthermore, data regarding acute kidney injury and the long-term renal
complications post-cardiac surgery will also be analysed. Methods: A
comprehensive review of literature was conducted using appropriate
keywords on search engines of SCOPUS, Wiley, PubMed, and SAGE Journals.
Conclusion: Various risk factors during the periods of surgery have been
identified to be linked to the occurrence of these adverse outcomes.
Many of these factors have been identified through extensive research
and are modifiable while several others are still unclear or needs
deeper understanding and studies.