Three-dimensional mapping discovered arrhythmic substrate missed in the
initial diagnosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation
Management of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) is challenging because an arrhythmic substrate may be missed at initial diagnosis; therefore, careful follow-up and reassessment are necessary. Three-dimensional mapping would be useful for reassessment of IVF because it revealed an arrhythmic substrate in a patient, 12 years after his initial IVF diagnosis. .