Outbreak of abomasal bloat in goat kids due to Clostridium ventriculi
and Clostridium perfringens type A in Brazil
This study aimed to describe an outbreak of abomasal bloat in kid goats
and its clinical, pathological, microbiological, molecular, and
epidemiological characteristics. In the kidding season, increased
mortality of kid goats with a history of abdominal bloating, dullness,
and death was reported. Clinical examinations were carried out, and
biological samples from necropsied kids (n = 11) were collected for
pathological, microbiological, and molecular diagnosis. Likewise, an
epidemiological survey was carried out in order to verify possible
associated factors related to the disorder. A therapeutic protocol was
also implemented. The main necropsy findings were dehydration, pale
mucosa, ascites, abomasal and intestinal meteorism and congestion,
emphysematous abomasitis, and cranial areas of lung consolidation.
Through staining techniques for cytological evaluations of the abomasum,
it was possible to identify Gram positive bacteria, coccoid, with a
cuboid shape suggestive of Clostridium ventriculi, Gram positive bacilli
suggestive of Clostridium perfringens and ovoid basophilic yeasts
compatible with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By anaerobic culture and
molecular tests, C. ventriculi and C. perfringens type A were confirmed.
The main histopathological findings were cholangiohepatitis, nephrosis,
emphysematous abomasitis, hyalinization of the gastric and intestinal
walls, gastroenteritis, intestinal thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, and
non-purulent pneumonia, overall suggesting a systemic enterotoxemia
picture. The early detection of sick kids and quick initiation of
treatment were the primary determinants of the prognosis of each case.
There was a final mortality rate of 24.4% (20/82), and the agents C.
perfringens type A and C. ventriculi were identified as the main ones
involved, with the possible participation of S. cerevisiae. Among the
possible associated factors, the erroneous use of the milk replacer
associated with inadequate kid management was verified. Among the
prophylactic measures, hygiene care, proper use of milk replacer,
vaccination plan containing C. perfringens alpha toxoid associated with
a good colostrum management were suggested.