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Bugs scaring bugs: enemy-risk effects in biological control systems
  • Michael Culshaw-Maurer,
  • Andrew Sih,
  • Jay Rosenheim
Michael Culshaw-Maurer
University of California Davis

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Andrew Sih
University of California Davis
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Jay Rosenheim
University of California Davis
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Enemy-risk effects, often referred to as non-consumptive effects (NCEs), are an important feature of predator-prey ecology, but their significance has had little impact on the conceptual underpinning or practice of biological control. We provide an overview of enemy-risk effects in predator-prey interactions, discuss ways in which risk effects may impact biocontrol programs, and suggest avenues for further integration of natural enemy ecology and integrated pest management. Enemy-risk effects can have important influences on different stages of biological control programs, including natural enemy selection, efficacy testing, and quantification of non-target impacts. Enemy-risk effects can also shape the interactions of biological control with other pest management practices. Biocontrol systems also provide community ecologists with some of the richest examples of behaviorally-mediated trophic cascades and demonstrations of how enemy-risk effects play out among species with no shared evolutionary history, important topics for invasion biology and conservation.  We conclude that the longstanding use of ecological theory by biocontrol practitioners should be expanded to incorporate enemy-risk effects, and that community ecologists will find many opportunities to study enemy risk effects in biocontrol settings.
12 May 2020Submitted to Ecology Letters
12 May 2020Submission Checks Completed
12 May 2020Assigned to Editor
17 May 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
18 May 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
30 Jun 2020Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
03 Aug 20201st Revision Received
04 Aug 2020Submission Checks Completed
04 Aug 2020Assigned to Editor
13 Aug 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
13 Aug 2020Editorial Decision: Accept