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CO2 Dissolution Efficiency during Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) in Randomly Stratified formations
  • yufei wang,
  • Daniel Fernandez Garcia,
  • Maarten W. Saaltink
yufei wang
Universitat Polit├Ęcnica de Catalunya

Corresponding Author:yufei.wang@upc.edu

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Daniel Fernandez Garcia
Technical University of Catalonia
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Maarten W. Saaltink
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Polit├Ęcnica de Catalunya (UPC)
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Abstract

Geological Carbon Sequestration mitigates climate change by capturing and storing carbon emissions in deep geologic formations. Dissolution trapping is one mechanism by which CO2 can be trapped in a deep formation. However, heterogeneity can significantly influenced dissolution efficiency. This work addresses the injection of CO2 in perfectly stratified saline formations under uncertainty. Monte Carlo two-phase flow compositional simulations involving the dissolution of CO2 into brine and evaporation of water into the CO2-rich phase are presented. We systematically analyzed the interplay between heterogeneity and buoyant forces, which is shown to control the migration of the CO2 plume as well as the temporal evolution of dissolution efficiency. Results show that when buoyant forces are important, vertical segregation controls the overall behavior of CO2, diminishing the influence of small-scale heterogeneity on dissolution. However, when buoyant forces are relatively small compared to the degree of heterogeneity, CO2 migrates preferentially through high permeability layers and dissolution efficiency increases with heterogeneity due to the stretching of the CO2 plume that enhances mixing. As a result, in this situation, the upscaling of permeability leads to an underestimation of the dissolution efficiency. A review of field sites shows that dissolution is heterogeneity-controlled in most real systems. Knowing that most numerical models cannot afford to represent heterogeneity at an adequate scale, results indicate that dissolution efficiency can be typically underestimated by a factor close to 1.5.