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Using k-Means Cluster Analysis to find and classify Ion Density Irregularities consistent with Equatorial Plasma Bubbles from Multi-year Formosat-5 Advanced Ionospheric Probe observations
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  • Cornelius Csar Jude Hisole Salinas,
  • Loren C. Chang,
  • Chi-Kuang Chao,
  • Jann-Yenq Liu,
  • Charles C. H. Lin
Cornelius Csar Jude Hisole Salinas
National Central University
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Loren C. Chang
National Central University

Corresponding Author:loren@g.ncu.edu.tw

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Chi-Kuang Chao
National Central University
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Jann-Yenq Liu
National Central University
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Charles C. H. Lin
National Cheng Kung University
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Abstract

This work explores the results of applying Square Euclidean and Correlation k-means cluster analysis on ion density irregularity profiles observed by the Advanced Ionospheric Probe (AIP) onboard the Formosat-5 (F-5) satellite from November 2017 to November 2020. The Square Euclidean cluster analysis yielded separate clusters each for ion density irregularities consistent with Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) occurring over the southern low-latitude, northern low-latitude and equator. The Correlation k-means cluster analysis only yielded one cluster characterized by ion density irregularities consistent with EPBs occurring over the equator. Thus, this work suggests that a cluster analysis preferably a Square Euclidean Cluster analysis can be used to find and classify ion density irregularities consistent with EPBs. This work also shows that the F-5/AIP can perform multi-year observations of ion density irregularities at ~710 km altitude and at ~2230 pm local-time that are consistent with irregularities due to EPBs.