Towards understanding Deccan volcanism
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• Stephen Self,
• Tushar Mittal,
• Loÿc Vanderkluysen,
• Gauri Dole
Stephen Self
University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley
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Tushar Mittal
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Corresponding Author:tmittal2@berkeley.edu

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Loÿc Vanderkluysen
Drexel University, Drexel University
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Gauri Dole
Department of Environmental Science, Savitribai Phule University,, Department of Environmental Science, Savitribai Phule University,
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## Abstract

Large igneous provinces (LIPs) represent some of the largest volcanic events in Earth history with significant impacts on the ecosystem, including mass extinctions. However, there are some fundamental questions related to the eruption rate, eruption style, and vent locations for LIP lava flows that remain unanswered. In this review, we use the Cretaceous-Paleogene Deccan Traps as an archetype to address these questions since it is one of the best-preserved large continental flood basalt provinces. We describe the volcanological features of the Deccan flows and their potential temporal and regional variations as well as the spatial characteristics of potential feeder dikes. Along with estimates of eruption rates for Deccan lavas from paleomagnetism and Hg proxy records, the Deccan volcanic characteristics suggest a unified conceptual model for the eruption of voluminous (> 1000 km$^3$) LIP lavas with large spatial extent (> 40,000 km$^2$). We conclude the review by highlighting a few key open questions and challenges that can help improve our understanding of how Deccan, as well as LIP flows in general, erupt and flow over long distances.
31 May 2022Published in Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences volume 50 issue 1 on pages 477-506. 10.1146/annurev-earth-012721-051416