loading page

Including the Temporal Dimension in the SECS Technique
  • +2
  • Santiago Marsal,
  • Joan Miquel Torta,
  • F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco,
  • Sean Patrick Blake,
  • Mirko Piersanti
Santiago Marsal
Ebre Observatory

Corresponding Author:smarsal@obsebre.es

Author Profile
Joan Miquel Torta
Observatori de l'Ebre
Author Profile
F. Javier Pavón-Carrasco
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Author Profile
Sean Patrick Blake
Catholic University of America
Author Profile
Mirko Piersanti
INFN - Tor Vergata Rome
Author Profile


The equivalent source method of Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) has contributed valuable results for spatial magnetic interpolation purposes where no observations are available, as well as for modeling equivalent currents both in the ionosphere and in the subsurface, thus providing a separation between external and internal sources. It has been successfully applied to numerous Space Weather (SW) events, whereas some advantages have been reported over other techniques such as Fourier or Spherical (Cap) Harmonic Analysis. Although different modalities of SECS exist (either 1-D, 2-D or 3-D) depending on the number of space dimensions involved, the method provides a sequence of instantaneous pictures of the source current. We present an extension of SECS consisting in the introduction of a temporal dependence in the formulation based on a cubic B-splines expansion. The technique thus adds one dimension, becoming 4-D in general (e.g., 3D + t), and its application is envisaged for, though not restricted to, the analysis of past events including heterogeneous geomagnetic datasets, such as those containing gaps, different sampling rates or diverse data sources. A synthetic model based on the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) is used to show the efficacy of the extended scheme. We apply this method to characterize the current systems of past and significant SW events producing geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), which we exemplify with an outstanding geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) occurred on March 24, 1991.
Oct 2020Published in Space Weather volume 18 issue 10. 10.1029/2020SW002491