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Study of Environmental Emissions from Road Transportation; A case of Bhaktapur Municipality, Nepal
  • Prasidha Raj Neupane,
  • Iswor Bajracharya,
  • Bhai Raja Manandhar
Prasidha Raj Neupane
Tribhuvan University, Tribhuvan University

Corresponding Author:prasidharaj17@gmail.com

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Iswor Bajracharya
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST)
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Bhai Raja Manandhar
SchEMS School of Environmental Science and Management, SchEMS School of Environmental Science and Management
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The unprecedented growth of emissions has deteriorated air quality dramatically leading to a pulmonary complication on human health especially during winter season increasing the prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) more in female compared to male. Selecting different peak and non-peak hour this study estimated vehicular emission load with the help of emission factors, derived equations, field visits, and literature review. The average annual vehicular energy demand of Bhaktapur municipality was estimated 33,044 GJ. The emission load of Bhaktapur municipality was estimated 3,310 tons/year including (CO2, CO, NOx, HC and PM10) of which CO2 accounts for 94.36% of total emissions followed by CO(4.39%), HC(0.72%), NOx (0.35%), and PM10 (0.18%) respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.92, p = 0.002) between CO2 and PM10, (r = 0.87, p = 0.009) between CO2 and NOx, (r = 0.90, p = 0.004) between CO and HC, (r = 0.74, p = 0.05) between NOx and PM10 respectively. Assuming an inauguration of electric Car, Motorbike and Buses within the Municipality at the rate of 10%, 20%, and 30% showed a significant reduction in emissions by 157 tons/year, 314 tons/year and 471 tons/year respectively. Carbon dioxide was found more potent to deteriorating air quality in the future compared to other vehicular pollutants. Replacement of fossil fuel based technology with clean energy technology is needed in the Bhaktapur municipality to sustain human health and welfare. Having lower emissions in Bhaktapur Municipality compared to its nearest city Kathmandu despite differences in population density and area size, effective preparedness, policy, and response in the present scenario can prevent worse possible future scenario.