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Developing Forest Fire Danger index using NASA MODIS TERRA Near Real Time satellite datasets
  • Suresh Babu K V,
  • Arijit Roy,
  • Ramachandra Prasad P
Suresh Babu K V
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Arijit Roy
Scientist SF
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Ramachandra Prasad P
Assistant Professor
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Forest fire is a major ecological disaster, which has economic, social and environmental impacts on humans and also causes the loss of biodiversity. Forest officials issue the warnings to the public on the basis of forest fire danger index classes. There is no operational forest fire danger index for the country India due to the sparsely distributed meteorological stations. The Fire Danger Rating System (FDRS) is a Decision Support System, which takes into consideration of all the factors affecting the fire danger such as fuel type, weather parameters and terrain characteristics and indexing into different classes of fire danger for the purpose of issuing warnings to the public, implementing the mitigation measures for controlling fires. The Static Fire Danger Index (SFDI) is a constant over the study area, computed from the MODIS Land cover type yearly L3 global 500 m SIN grid (MCD12Q1) and ASTER GDEM datasets. In this study, we used the Near Real Time datasets and these Near Real time datasets are available within 3 hours of the observation time of satellite overpass, downloaded through an FTP site. Dynamic Fire Danger Index has been calculated from the Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 MODIS Terra Land Surface Temperature datasets (MOD11_L2) and MODIS TERRA NRT surface reflectance dataset MOD09 by using three parameters, i.e. Potential surface temperature, Perpendicular Moisture Index (PMI) and Modified Normalized Difference Fire Index (MNDFI). Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) has been computed by integrating the static fire danger index and individual dynamic forest fire danger index on each day during the major fire episode of Uttarakhand in 2016. The FFDI has been categorized into 5 fire danger classes such as Very high, High, Moderate, Low and No fire danger and MODIS active fire product MOD14 has been used for the validation. Estimated accuracy was ranging from 72% to 91% and the overall accuracy was around 81.27%. Therefore, the developed Forest Fire Danger Index will be useful for the disseminating the danger maps daily in near real time basis using the MODIS TERRA Near Real Time datasets so that the fire officials to take necessary actions to control the spreading of forest fires.