Exploring the dynamics of natural regeneration facilitates the understanding of the mechanisms of community assembly and biodiversity formation in tropical forests. However, there is still a lack of convincing evidence related to regeneration, especially for threatened tropical plant communities. Dacrydium pectinatum is a constructive and an endangered species in the tropical mountain forests of Hainan Island. A total of 204 regeneration plots of 5 m × 5 m were investigated along environmental axes of temperature and precipitation in the northwest (Bawangling, 90 plots), southwest (Jianfengling, 90 plots) and southeast (Diaoluoshan, 24 plots) of Hainan Island. We examined the variation in community structure, mortality, density and species richness at the three sites and analyzed the key environmental drivers that affect regeneration. The results showed that the mortality of adults, seedlings and saplings was the lowest in Diaoluoshan, followed by Jianfengling and Bawangling. The peaks in the density and species richness of regenerating individuals were limited to mid-elevations. Elevation, soil total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus, canopy density and adult density were significantly correlated with density and species richness. All findings indicate that at a broad landscape scale, variation in precipitation and temperature due to latitude, longitude and elevation is the dominant cause for the formation of the regeneration dynamic patterns along distinct environmental axes and that the intermediate environmental conditions at middle elevations contribute to regeneration. At the community level, habitat preferences related to elevational factors, soil total nitrogen, soil available phosphorus and forest gaps play a key role in regeneration success. Biological mechanisms (negative density-limiting effects) also have an important effect. We recommend various actions to improve the protection of D. pectinatum, such as the prevention of habitat destruction, appropriate thinning of high-density stands, and strengthening of niche research, and increase biodiversity.